How is photosynthesis similar in c4 plants and cam plants?
ATP and NADPH. How is photosynthesis similar in C4 plants and CAM plants? In both cases, rubisco is not used to fix carbon initially. ATP and NADPH are both products of the light reactions and are used to power the Calvin cycle.
Considering this how are C4 and CAM photosynthesis similar?C3 photosynthesis produces a three-carbon compound via the Calvin cycle while C4 photosynthesis makes an intermediate four-carbon compound that splits into a three-carbon compound for the Calvin cycle. Plants that use CAM photosynthesis gather sunlight during the day and fix carbon dioxide molecules at night.
Keeping this in mind what does photosynthesis in C4 plants and CAM plants have in common?C4 and CAM plants are plants that use certain special compounds to gather carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) during photosynthesis. Using these compounds allows these plants to extract more CO 2 from a given amount of air, helping them prevent water loss in dry climates.
Moreover, how are C3 C4 and CAM plants similar?C3 and C4 indicates the number of carbon atoms in the sugar molecules produced by the photosynthesis. CAM is Crassulacean acid metabolism in which carbon dioxide CO2 is fixed at night. Generally, C3 plants are suited to cool, moist conditions, C4 to hot and dry, and CAM to arid conditions.
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Related questions and answers
C4 plants are unique because they incorporate another type of carbon fixation that forms a four-carbon sugar (hence their name) before they undergo the Calvin cycle. In the C4 plants, the Calvin cycle occurs in the bundle-sheath cells (in C3 plants this occurs in the mesophyll cells).
In C4 photosynthesis, where a four-carbon compound is produced, unique leaf anatomy allows carbon dioxide to concentrate in 'bundle sheath' cells around Rubisco. This structure delivers carbon dioxide straight to Rubisco, effectively removing its contact with oxygen and the need for photorespiration.
The most important benefit of CAM to the plant is the ability to leave most leaf stomata closed during the day. Plants employing CAM are most common in arid environments, where water comes at a premium.
C4 cycle occurs in both monocot plants and dicot plants. However, it is more common in monocots than dicots.
C3 plants are defined as the plants that exhibit the C3 pathway. These plants use the Calvin cycle in the dark reaction of photosynthesis. On the other hand, C4 plants are defined as the plants that use the C4 pathway or Hatch-slack pathway during the dark reaction.
They are called C4 plants because the first product of carbon dioxide fixation is a 4-carbon compound, not PGA as it is in C3 plants. The answer is simple - C4 plants separate the site of oxygen production (PSII) from rubisco (Calvin cycle).
Tomato (C3-plants) and maize (C4-plants) were grown in a nutrient solution to which triacontanol was added twice a week. The difference in the response of C3- and C4-plants to triacontanol indicates that it regulates processes related to photosynthesis.
Some plants that are adapted to dry environments, such as cacti and pineapples, use the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) pathway to minimize photorespiration. In the daylight, the CAM plants do not open their stomata, but they can still photosynthesize.
Biochemical studies indicate that photorespiration consumes ATP and NADPH, the high-energy molecules made by the light reactions. Thus, photorespiration is a wasteful process because it prevents plants from using their ATP and NADPH to synthesize carbohydrates.
Examples of C4 plants include corn, sorghum, sugarcane, millet, and switchgrass.
So according to this article the banana has C3 photosynthesis. Although many other monocot species do exhibit C4 photosynthesis (and C4 photosynthsis does seem to have evolved independently multiple times)2, the banana family, Musaceae, consists of C3 plants3.
Whereas warm-season grasses are considered C4 plants cool-season grasses are C3 plants. Cool-season grasses use a three-carbon compound as opposed to a four-carbon compound. (Christians) Rubisco is the three carbon compound that cool-season grasses use in photosynthesis.
The main difference between C4 and CAM plants is the way they minimize water loss. C4 plants relocate the CO2 molecules to minimize photorespiration while CAM plants choose when to extract CO2 from the environment. They collect CO2 at night when the environment is much cooler and stores the concentrated CO2 as malate.
The primary carboxylating enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, occurs exclusively in the mesophyll cells while the secondary carboxylase, ribulose 1,5‐bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, and the decarboxylating enzymes NADP‐dependent malic enzyme, NAD‐dependent malic enzyme or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase are
Second, C4 plants have specialized leaf anatomy with two different types of photosynthetic cells: mesophyll cells (on the exterior of the leaf, near stomata) and bundle sheath cells (in the interior of the leaf, far away from stomata). Rubisco is located in bundle sheath cells, but not in mesophyll cells.
C4 plants have a distinctive leaf anatomy (Kranz anatomy), with chlorophyll-containing mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells, which form a gas-tight cylinder surrounding the vascular bundle.
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a photosynthetic adaptation to periodic water supply, occurring in plants in arid regions (e.g., cacti) or in tropical epiphytes (e.g., orchids and bromeliads). CAM plants close their stomata during the day and take up CO2 at night, when the air temperature is lower.
Which of the following do C4 plants and CAM plants have in common? Both fix CO2 into an initial 4-carbon compound. What is the driving force for the production of ATP in the light reactions?
Pineapple is considered an 'obligate' CAM plant, using an exclusively CAM pathway during photosynthesis.
While at night, the plants uptake oxygen and release carbon dioxide, which is called respiration. However, some plants can uptake carbon dioxide during the night as well because of their ability to perform a type of photosynthesis called Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM).
In contrast to C3 and C4 plants, CAM plants open their stomata and fix CO2 at night. The basic role of stomata is to regulate transpiration and photosynthesis. At night, when there is no photosynthesis and thus no demand of CO2 inside the leaf, stomatal apertures are kept small, preventing unnecessary loss of water.
Photosynthesis in Higher Plants. How is C4 pathway more energy expensive that C3 ? C3 Cycle needs 18 ATP molecules for synthesis of one molecule of glucose whereas the C4 cycle needs 30 ATP molecules. Due to high energy requirement C4 cycle is more energy expensive than the C3 cycle.
The drawback to C4 photosynthesis is the extra energy in the form of ATP that is used to pump the 4-carbon acids to the bundle sheath cell and the pumping of the 3-carbon compound back to the mesophyll cell for conversion to PEP.
It is rare to find C4 plants in such environments. CAM photosynthesis is found in more than 7% of vascular plant species, and has evolved independently several times.
and C4 plant common millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) Our results suggest that the advantages of the C4 photosynthetic pathway could lead to higher drought resistance due to lower oxidative stress (determined by an absence of photorespiration) and higher WUE.
Kranz anatomy is a specialized structure in C4 Plants where the mesophyll cells are clustered around the bundle-sheath cells in a ring-like fashion. The number of chloroplasts in the bundle-sheath cells is more than that in the mesophyll cells.
There are classes of plants known as “C3” and “C4” – referring to how they convert light energy into sugar or photosynthesize. Rice has a C3 photosynthetic pathway. “Other plants, such as maize, already have C4 photosynthesis,” says IRRI's Dr.